We do not intentionally collect and distribute personal data automatically from our website visitors. Those who submit comments have to give their email ids, which are not displayed or distributed to any third party. Subscription to future posts is through a Jetpack plugin, the data storing and emailing are through the plugin providers. Google will show only non-personalized ads to our users in the EEA as per the settings chosen by us. This is in order to minimize/eliminate privacy issues. Users who consider that data likely to be collected by Google is unacceptable, kindly do not continue on this site.

Types of aortic regurgitation (AR) based on mechanism

Types of aortic regurgitation (AR) based on mechanism

Type 1: Normal valve cusps with incomplete coaptation due to aortic root dilatation and a central regurgitant jet.

– Any of the components of the aortic root including annulus, sinuses of Valsalva and sinotubular junction exceeds normal limits.

Type 2: Eccentric regurgitant jet due to cusp prolapse or fenestration.

– When the free edge of one or more aortic cusps passed beyond the plane of the aortic annulus, it was considered as prolapse.

Type 3: Retraction with poor quality of cusp tissue producing a large central or eccentric jet.

This classification was used to predict surgical repairability and outcome based on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) [1]. In this study, agreement between TEE findings and surgical inspection findings was 93%. Final surgical approach could be predicted by TEE in 86% of those undergoing aortic valve repair and in 93% of those undergoing valve replacement.


  1. le Polain de Waroux JB, Pouleur AC, Goffinet C, Vancraeynest D, Van Dyck M, Robert A, Gerber BL, Pasquet A, El Khoury G, Vanoverschelde JL. Functional anatomy of aortic regurgitation: accuracy, prediction of surgical repairability, and outcome implications of transesophageal echocardiography. Circulation 2007;116:I264–269.
MCQs in Medicine - Cardiovascular System is based on undergraduate medical curriculum. Though the questions are aimed at basic post graduate entrance examinations, candidates taking competitive exams at the post graduate exit level may also find them useful, especially the explanations for the answers. Undergraduate medical students will find them useful for answering MCQ tests in their regular exams. More than just answering MCQs, the explanations will improve the knowledge and understanding about the conditions discussed.Medicine MCQs - Cardiovascular System Kindle Edition: Click Here for a Preview Comments and suggestions are most welcome.